Foods Containing Diacetyl Pose Threat to Consumers


foods containing diacetyl

Diacetyl is an organic compound found in foods and additives that are used for dairy flavoring. Diacetyl is also found in brown flavors, such as caramel, butterscotch, and other sweeteners. Foods containing diacetyl can be found in a variety of products but is most commonly associated with popcorn because of the substance’s connection to “popcorn-lung” — Bronchiolitis obliterans.

While diacetyl can be found naturally in some foods, it is most common in processed food products that contain flavoring additives.


Common Foods Containing Diacetyl

Diacetyl is most prevalent in processed foods that contain butter flavoring. It is used as a flavoring agent in butter, butter sprays, margarine, shortening, oil, oil sprays and other butter-flavored substances. If a product is advertised as having “buttery flavor,” then that product likely contains diacetyl. These products commonly include:

  • Popcorn
  • Potato chips
  • Crackers
  • Corn chips


Diacetyl is also used as a brown flavor sweetening additive in products such as:

  • Chocolate
  • Cookies
  • Cocoa-flavor products
  • Gelatin
  • Candy
  • Flour mixes
  • Syrup with flavoring
  • Frostings
  • Chewing gum
  • Ice cream
  • Soft drinks
  • Sauces


Along with processed foods, diacetyl occurs naturally in some foods and beverages. Foods containing diacetyl that occurs naturally include:


Are Food Containing Diacetyl Safe to Consume? 

Diacetyl poses a greater risk of toxicity when it is heated. The likelihood of adverse health risks associated with diacetyl – such as popcorn lung — is therefore increased if a product is heated prior to consumption.

Foods and beverages containing diacetyl are not inherently dangerous to consume if they are not heated. It is important to note, however, that heating products containing diacetyl trigger a chemical reaction that releases the dangerous compound into the air as a more dangerous vaporous form. While consuming diacetyl is not a major health risk, inhaling diacetyl vapors can be very dangerous. This poses a great threat to users of Juul and other e-cigarettes. Diacetyl vapor inhalation is linked to an array of pulmonary complications, including popcorn lung.

If you are heating a product that contains diacetyl — such as microwave popcorn, coffee, hot-cocoa – ensure that the product has cooled down before consuming it. Distance yourself from the product while it is heating up, and avoid prolonged exposure to diacetyl vapors.

61 Comments Posted

  1. About popcorn, is it all popcorn or is it popcorn that has added flavoring? I make popcorn a couple of times a week, and I will add a cajun seasoning and turmeric. No butter ever

    Posted by Rodney on Mon Feb 26 2018 10:58am

    • Rodney, it is popcorn with added flavoring.

      Posted by Lindsey Andrews on Mon Feb 26 2018 11:40am

  2. Is there anything worth eating that does not contain diacetyl? Why do these products not contain warnings? The FDA is supposed to warn about harmful food products

    Posted by PJ Colella on Fri Nov 23 2018 4:09pm

    • The FDA collects and evaluates products based on the reports they receive from consumers and doctors. The best thing you can do in this type of situation is to report any adverse side effects. More information can be found on our blog: Report an Injury or Side Effect.

      Posted by Lindsey Andrews on Tue Dec 18 2018 3:00pm

  3. Just read an article regarding DIPCETYL (buttery flavoring). It effects you memory!

    Posted by Sam Longwell on Wed Nov 28 2018 2:38pm

  4. I read that it’s not just memory – it can add to the chance of Alzheimer’s disease. Microwave popcorn seems to be extremely toxic. As per WebMD.

    Posted by Mari on Sat Jul 20 2019 11:04am

  5. If you are reading this because you are “pro vaping” then what you are saying is your bad thing you do to your body is less bad than smoking. So we both agree vaping is a bad thing to do and, in conclusion, you are making poor life decisions and should quit vaping today.

    In twenty years ago there are going to be pictures of you holding some lame outdated smoking device that you will be embarrassed that you ever held in your hand.

    Posted by Robert Harris on Fri Sep 13 2019 8:44am

  6. Are there any coffees, beer or wines that do not contain Diacetyl? And what’s the difference between Diacetyl and dipcetyl?

    Posted by CYNTHIA GRIFFITH on Sun Sep 22 2019 4:54pm

    • I am not sure that we are familiar with “dipcetyl”. Do you possibly mean “acetyl” or “acetyl propionyl”, Cynthia?

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Tue Sep 24 2019 4:30pm

  7. Are there any coffees, beers, etc. that don’t contain diacetyl?

    Posted by Betsy on Wed Jan 8 2020 12:46pm

    • Almost all coffees & beers contain at least some level of diacetyl. During consumption, this diacetyl is harmless. The heated diacetyl vapors, often released during beverage making and preparation, are what pose a threat to consumers. If you are just drinking a beer, you aren’t at risk. However, if you are brewing your own beer, you may want to check diacetyl levels and be sure to have proper protection (ventilation and facemasks). The same can be said for coffee – if you are consuming coffee, even while hot, you are at a minimum risk for diacetyl exposure. If you are roasting your own coffee beans, you are likely at risk and should take precautions.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Thu Jan 9 2020 10:44am

  8. Are you open to face to face consultation/ conversation and fill forms in office

    Posted by Jannette on Mon Mar 16 2020 11:11am

    • Jannette, normally we are open to in-person consultations. Given the ongoing current events, we are trying to do our part in minimizing social interactions and encouraging social distancing by limiting most client interactions to phone-calls and emails. Under special circumstances, we may be able to schedule a face-to-face consultation. We will reach out via the email that you have provided.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Tue Mar 17 2020 9:54am

  9. What about cheeses
    Is consuming grilled cheese ok, or is that to much heat on the cheese?

    Posted by C on Tue Mar 17 2020 7:15pm

    • C – Consuming these products is safe. The manufacturing and cooking of these foods puts individuals at the most risk. Generally, mass production is the most dangerous while cooking for oneself won’t put you at a big risk. So, if you are cooking yourself a grilled cheese to have for lunch, you are fine. If you work in a plant that produces cheese or you work at a company that mass produces grilled cheese, you could be at risk.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Fri Mar 20 2020 9:29am

  10. Thankyou for information, my body is going through some changes. And I am trying to find out what changed in my habits that maybe made things change. I am a strong believer in the things we put our bodies through makes a huge difference. So thanks for helping me stay healthy.

    Posted by Cathy Curry on Wed Mar 25 2020 2:11pm

  11. I make my own kefir with whole milk. With my own grains. Am I putting myself at risk, with the diacetyl exposure? I’ve read there’s only small amounts and beverage is consumed cold. Thank you.

    Posted by Amy Roessing on Mon Mar 30 2020 4:52am

    • Diacetyl exists in many foods, even natural foods such as certain grains. When those foods are heated during the production process it can release differing levels of dangerous vaporized diacetyl into the air. Generally, these vaporized gases begin to pose a threat in mass production settings and not so much so for individuals making their own food or beverages. However, there have been documented cases of individuals that suffered injury due to diacetyl vapor exposure in a non-mass production setting – for example, a video store clerk suffered lung injury as a result of his daily task of having to heat up buttered popcorn. If you are making kefir, you should not worry too much. But, we would encourage you to wear a respiratory protection device is that process requires you to heat any of the ingredients to produce the kefir. It’s a simple protective measure that will keep you safe from any exposure.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Mon Mar 30 2020 1:16pm

  12. Does diacetyl affect the brain ultimately contributing to memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease? Others have asked; tgeir questions were not answered.

    Posted by Grace Seventko on Wed Apr 1 2020 6:30am

    • Grace – while we would like to give you a definitive answer on this, our efforts thus far have been primarily focused on the science of diacetyl vapor’s effect on the human respiratory system. We will absolutely begin to research the question that you have presented and hopefully, we can find an answer for you.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Thu Apr 2 2020 11:34am

  13. Diacetyl can be listed as “natural flavoring” . How can you know in an ingredient’s list what these “natural flavorings” are?

    Posted by Linda Kester on Sun Apr 5 2020 10:37am

    • This is an issue that has been pressed before. Because diacetyl is naturally occurring in many foods, it does not fall under the “added ingredients” list on some labels. However, diacetyl is added to other foods in order to give them a smokey or buttery flavor – when this is the case, diacetyl can be found on the “added ingredients” list of the label. For foods that contain natural diacetyl, best practice is to familarize yourself with the foods so that you are aware of which types of foods contain diacetly naturally. We suggest scientific and peer-reviewed literature.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Mon Apr 6 2020 11:54am

  14. Would working at a coffee shop making espresso drinks be an unhealthy exposure to diacetyl?

    Posted by Susan on Sat Apr 18 2020 6:44pm

    • Generally not, Susan. Depending on the length of employment and exposure to vapors, a coffee barista runs at least a minimal risk of inhaling vaporized diacetyl. However, the greatest risk is to individuals who work in roasting facilities, where the coffee beans are heated. If you do notice that you are having difficulty breathing, you should consult your primary care physician and make sure that they are aware of your profession. It is unlikely that you develop lung damage from making coffee drinks, but it isn’t completely out of the question.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Mon Apr 20 2020 4:36pm

  15. Thank you for your work on diacetyl. Can you verify whether it crosses the blood brain barrier and contributes to amyloid plaque in the brain?

    Posted by Karl roman on Mon Dec 7 2020 11:12am

    • Hello, Karl! There are a number of articles that have been published which discuss the causal relationship between diacetyl exposure and Alzheimer’s. While we do not actively try diacetyl cases where the primary injury is Alzheimer’s, we respect the the scientific research discussed in those articles, which indicates that there could be a causal relationship.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Mon Dec 7 2020 3:29pm

  16. You mention it is in gelatin.. Is it the powdered like Knox?

    Posted by Donna on Sun Dec 27 2020 2:00pm

  17. I drink a lot of flavored selzer with natural flavorings and no added sugar. Is there diacetyl in these drinks? And is it safe to drink?

    Posted by Patricia on Thu Dec 31 2020 4:11am

    • These drinks are very likely to be safe. Diacetyl is only harmful in its vaporized state, so the food must be heated in order to be potentially harmful.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Wed Jan 6 2021 8:57am

  18. Sorry but I have a few questions.Is it safe to get a hot cup of coffee at a restaurant,or brew one in my Keurig? Can I eat my favorite muenster cheese or provolone on a sandwich and be safe? Is it in 2% milk? I looked at the ingredients on my cheese packages and lunch meat.It doesn’t show diacetyl on it.Is there a place to get a list with all items with this in it and is there a list of safe things to eat?

    Posted by Sharon E Vorheier on Tue Jan 19 2021 2:50pm

    • Your exposure to diacetyl vapor, which can cause popcorn lung, is very low when consuming these products. Individuals who are involved in the production of these products are at a risk or respiratory injury, if they are not using proper protective equipment. Consumers are generally not at risk, unless they are very frequently heating products that contain diacetyl.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Wed Jan 20 2021 12:34pm

  19. Do you know the difference in quantity of Diacetyl between butter and Earth Balance fake butter?

    Posted by Doug on Fri Jan 22 2021 8:19am

    • Without filing litigation against manufacturers, it is difficult to determine the exact quantity of diacetyl in a product. We are able to access this information through the discovery phase of a lawsuit.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Mon Jan 25 2021 10:09am

  20. Does regular butter contains dyacetil? Is cooking with butter exposing me to unnecessary risks? Thanks,

    Posted by Elias Fakhouri on Sat Jan 30 2021 10:03am

    • Diacetyl is found naturally in butter.The trace amounts that you may be exposed to during the cooking process would likely not put you at risk of popcorn lung. However, we encourage using proper ventilation while cooking. If you cook with a large amount of butter on a very regular basis, you may want to take extra precaution to ensure that you are not at risk.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Wed Feb 3 2021 11:52am

  21. I’m at a loss here of the “fine line” of exposure. So when people in factories heat coffee bean then they are exposed to the diacetyl vapor. Does that include consumers at home, who grind store bought (including organic) coffee beans then brew their own coffee?
    I buy as much organic produce and products as I can. Which leads me to dairy. I purchase Horizon brands and also cheeses from Ireland, Scotland. I do not purchase Kraft or any other processed cheese. Am I at still at risk of diacetyl exposure?
    Thank you, for your help.

    Posted by Jill on Wed Feb 10 2021 4:26am

    • Jill, sorry that we are unable to further articulate where that line is drawn. The problem is, it is difficult to say with certainty whether an individual is at risk unless we are able to properly document their exposure levels and lung functionality. For exposure to to pose a risk, the product containing diacetyl must be heated to a certain degree. Generally, only those exposed to high concentrations of vaporized diacetyl over longer periods of time are at risk of the adverse health effects associated with the chemical. This is why we see a much higher prevalence of lung injury in coffee roasters who are surrounded by large quantities of the vapor for 8 hours or more a day.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Fri Feb 12 2021 12:50pm

  22. What about the fragrance vapor misters many homes use without thinking it could be related to respiratory difficulties? Is this enzyme released when using these fragrance mist devices?

    Posted by skr on Sun Feb 14 2021 10:58am

    • We are unaware of the presence of diacetyl in misting fragrance devices, but we will be sure to have our research team look into it further.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Mon Feb 15 2021 9:22am

  23. Dialy i drink one cup of milk and cheese also I want to know if this dangerous for me ..
    One more question Turkish coffee beans also has Diacetyl.
    Mohamad Saleh Saleh

    Posted by Mohamad Saleh Saleh on Mon Feb 15 2021 1:02am

    • Consuming products containing diacetyl does not pose risk to a consumer’s respiratory system. Many dairy products contain natural diacetyl, which is generally thought of as safe for consumption. Products containing diacetyl that are heated, causing it to transition to it’s vaporized form, can pose a threat to consumer’s respiratory systems if exposed at high levels or over long periods of time. While we cannot say with certainty that all Turkish beans contain diacetyl, it is likely. You should be fine if you are making/consuming Turkish coffee at a consumer level.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Mon Feb 15 2021 9:25am

  24. Are gelatin products like Knox or others toxic. Do they contain diacetyl. I make gelatine desserts with Knox unflavored gelatin and cooked berries

    Posted by Marie on Fri Feb 26 2021 11:38am

  25. Very fascinating information. Thanks for providing it. I have only two questions. 1. Is microwave popcorn that is labeled, “natural”, i.e. without butter safe? 2. I am vegan, and just found a “fake” cheese called CHAO. It is yummy. I eat it cold. Would it be considered safe? Thanks.

    Posted by Jeanne Baker on Sat Feb 27 2021 6:10pm

    • Hello, Jeanne. Glad you enjoyed the content. To answer your questions, yes, neither pose risk to your respiratory system.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Mon Mar 1 2021 10:38am


    Posted by JOSEPH FRYE on Sun Feb 28 2021 8:14pm

    • All foods containing naturally occurring diacetyl & diacetyl additives are safe for consumption, to our knowledge. These products are only potentially harmful when they are heated, releasing vaporized diacetyl that is known to be harmful if inhaled. You are fine to consume these products. Just take precaution when heating them. We recommend proper kitchen ventilation and, if exposed to high quantities of products containing diacetyl that are being heated, wearing PPE.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Mon Mar 1 2021 10:41am

  27. Is skinny pop popcorn have it? You don’t have to heat it and not flavored

    Posted by Tena on Tue Mar 2 2021 12:45pm

    • Although some skinny pop popcorn may contain diacetyl, the fact that you do not have to heat it means that it does not pose any sort of risk of respiratory injury.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Wed Mar 3 2021 9:16am

  28. just FYI – it’s not a normal ingredient in vaping. Just FYI,, if you are a smoker, vaping is a good way to quit smoking.
    Black market vapes have this icky ingredient, but it’s not an ingredient in regular vapes or even THC vapes – you’ve got to watch more than the news – it’s full of lies &1/2 truths.

    Another FYI, cigarettes don’t pollute, cars do – stand in a room w/10 smokers – get a headache. Stand in a room with a running car without ventilation – you die – see the difference?

    Posted by Holly on Thu Mar 4 2021 7:10am

    • Diacetyl is a commonly-occurring chemical in a range of vaping products in both the open market as well as black market products. The FDA has not approved any vaping product as a cigarette cessation device. A multitude of peer-reviewed research has proven, and cigarette manufacturers have admitted in publicly-available court documents, that second-hand smoke is dangerous and even life-threatening.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Fri Mar 26 2021 1:35pm

  29. I’m confused. You repeatedly state that consuming products with diacetyl is safe, but have no research on the consumption of diacetyl and memory loss. How can you conclude it’s safe but have no research? Other sources (including medical) indicate there maybe an association between diacetyl consumption and memory loss, which would be a good place to start your research. Careful, your use of “safe” is unfounded and potentially misleading. You’re probably a lawyer, so providing medical conclusions may be beyond your wheelhouse.

    Posted by Dave on Thu Mar 25 2021 8:43pm

    • Dave – to our knowledge, the consumption of foods and beverages containing diacetyl does not pose a risk to the consumer’s respiratory system. However, we are under the opinion that the diacetyl vapors released from heating foods and beverages containing diacetyl may put consumers/manufacturers at risk of respiratory injury, primarily popcorn lung. Our previous research on the subject of diacetyl dangers has been limited to the scope of our own litigation, so we cannot speak to the chemical’s association with memory loss. However, it is a very interesting topic. We will do our best to research it and expand on this piece in order to include all relevant information thank you for making us aware of this.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Fri Mar 26 2021 1:41pm

  30. Hi, you say “…and most fruits” in your description of where diacetyl is found. Can you be more specific about which fruits? I can’t seem to find a list of them anywhere. Also is it the heating up of those fruits or the raw consumption of those fruits? Thanks!

    Posted by Erma on Thu Apr 1 2021 11:57am

    • It has been hard for our team to locate an entire list of fruits containing diacetyl, though can confirm they are found in beans and strawberries. These fruits do not pose any risk to the consumer’s respiratory system if consumed. They may pose a risk if heated in very high quantity, if the consumer is exposed to any vaporized diacetyl.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Tue Apr 6 2021 9:34am

  31. The previous questions about gelatin weren’t answered. I put a tsp. into each of two separate pots of steeping tea most every day. What about gelatin?

    Posted by Pat on Wed Apr 7 2021 11:16pm

  32. My son works in a micro brewery (making beer). Is he at risk since this involves heating grain, etc.?

    Posted by Gail on Wed Apr 14 2021 10:12am

    • Gail, we could not say for certain without knowing the ingredients that your son is working with, the working conditions, the PPE workers are provided, and the ventilation system that is being used.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Mon Apr 19 2021 1:16pm

  33. Hello, and thank you for this information! What about the situation in the workplace when someone makes microwave popcorn in the break room? It may or may not have burned, but the smell always wafts throughout the office and is annoying. Can this cause popcorn lung? I work in a physicians office by the way. Thanks!

    Posted by Sue Considine on Fri Apr 23 2021 7:13am

    • Hypothetically, this could cause popcorn lung. However, this person would have to be making popcorn extremely frequently in order to create a potentially hazardous level of diacetyl vapor. There was a documented case of a movie rental clerk who was exposed to microwaved popcorn on a very regular basis who subsequently developed popcorn lung.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Tue Apr 27 2021 10:03am

  34. I read somewhere that cheese is not for people over 50 because of diacetyl. Can’t find the source. Do you agree?

    Posted by Peter on Wed Jun 2 2021 3:48am

    • We are not familiar with any research related to diacetyl risks from cheese consumption that is related to age.

      Posted by Jordan Terry on Wed Jun 2 2021 12:26pm

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